20 08 2013
Color Help: Color Theory and Design Psychology
Color theory is an entire science unto itself, and to get a full picture of how it all works, I’d suggest picking up a few art books. In this article, however, we’re going to take a brief look at the essentials of color theory, in light of the concepts of Design Psychology. we’ll first list a term, and then offer a short summary of how the term relates to Design Psychology.
The base name of a color without any white, gray, or black added. The terms hue and color are interchangeable.
A color wheel contains twelve colors, based on primitive pigments. The three primary colors are red, blue, and yellow. Three secondary colors (composed of combinations of the three primary colors) follow: red and blue make purple; red and yellow make orange; yellow and blue make green. Six tertiary colors (comprised of combinations of primary and secondary colors) form the remainder of the color wheel: yellow-orange, red-orange, violet, blue-green, and yellow-green. Black is the total absence of color and white is the reflection of all colors.
Value or Lightness
This denotes the degree of lightness or darkness of a hue, in relation to pure white or black.
Intensity, Saturation, or Croma:
This term describes the degree of purity of a hue as compared to neutral gray of the same value. This is the freedom from added white or gray; how bright or dull a color appears in relation to the basic hue.
These are deep tones, in which black is added to a color.
These are pastels, in which white is added to a color.
Adding gray of the same value to a hue or adding its complement creates a tone.
The intensity or depth of color, such as dark or light.
Monochromatic Color Schemes
This term is used to describe rooms with only tints and shades of the same color. Neutral color schemes are usually monochromatic.
Analogous, Side-by-Side, or Related Color Schemes
These rooms use adjacent colors to the principal color on the color wheel. This is considered a friendly scheme, because the colors blend well and create a soft effect.
Complementary or Opposite Color Schemes
Rooms that use colors from opposite sides of the color wheel. This is considered to be a power and action scheme.
Consists of three colors, spaced an equal distance apart on the color wheel. Triad color schemes can potentially cause glaring and confusing feelings when all the colors are intense.
Consists of four colors, spaced an equal distance apart on the color wheel. Tetrad color schemes create interesting effects because of the potential variety available. They are best when two colors dominate.
Topographical Color Schemes
These schemes contain colors from nature, such as rocks, earth, sky, sea, and plants.
Floral Color Schemes
These schemes use brilliant or pastel colors found in plants and flowers.
Fabrics and wallpapers come in different combinations of colors, or colorways. A fabric pattern will have several selections of colorways to choose from. A pattern may be available in colorways of: yellow, blue and green, red, blue and green; or purple, burgundy and blue.
This occurs when neighboring colors appear to clash and vibrate in our vision, creating a dizzying effect that adds to nervousness and tiredness.
These are colors on the edge of two colors that take on different values under different lighting situations, such as, dark blue/purple (periwinkle), orange/red (terra-cotta reds), and blue/greens (teal). Periwinkle may appear more purple than dark blue at night or under different lighting systems.
This is a true color, without additive colors, such as sky blue, grass green, or apple red. A simple color is a pure color.
This is a combination of colors, such as silvery blue, or lichen (grayish green-brown). A complex color is a color that requires a long description, such as